Bulk storage

Mineral Ores

 
 
 

Mining companies face the toughest environmental and permitting challenges. Geometrica helps meet both with elegant, versatile domes.

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Ore stockpiles house immense volumes and produce dust.  They sit on sloping terrain at inaccessible locations.  They are irregular in shape.  And, often, they are already in operation. 

Geometrica domes can be built to meet every one of these challenges.  Dust is controlled and your property becomes attractive to clients, investors, regulators and neighbors alike.

 
 
This Freedome® covers the whole ore processing complex at Coemin.

This Freedome® covers the whole ore processing complex at Coemin.

Longitudinal dome carries tripper conveyor in Cerro de Pasco, Perú

Longitudinal dome carries tripper conveyor in Cerro de Pasco, Perú

The Caserones dome measures 145m in diameter and is 94m high.

The Caserones dome measures 145m in diameter and is 94m high.

 
 
 

A Geometrica dome solves your stockpile dust problem.

 
Copper mine stockpile before dome construction.

Copper mine stockpile before dome construction.

Copper mine stockpile after dome construction.

Copper mine stockpile after dome construction.

 
 

Geometrica domes can be built without stopping production.

Below we see the Herradura twin domes built over operating stockpiles.

 
 

bulk storage

Coal and Pet-coke

 
 

The largest fuel stockpiles can now be covered.

Enel Bocamina domes span 207m and 181m respectively. Coronel, Chile.

Enel Bocamina domes span 207m and 181m respectively. Coronel, Chile.

 

More than a third of the world's energy is produced from solid fuel. Coal and pet-coke are stored in huge stockpiles near plants that consume them. These piles used to be open-air, but current environmental consciousness demands that they are covered. As an example, above are Enel’s Bocamina coal yards in Chile. Over 300,000t of fuel were previously stored in the open. Now, two Freedomes cover all that fuel and 46,000m2.

 
Aboitiz Power Therma Visayas 126m coal dome near Toledo, Philippines.

Aboitiz Power Therma Visayas 126m coal dome near Toledo, Philippines.

Combustibility makes coal storage a special case that deserves careful treatment.

The National Fire Protection Association (standards NFPA 120 and 850) identifies the hazards associated with storage and handling of coal, and gives the following recommendations for protection and safety.

  • Storage structures are made of non-combustible materials

  • The surface area upon which dust can settle is minimized or, even more desirable, cladding is installed underneath a building's structural elements

  • Coal should be kept as dry as possible (sprinklers are not recommended)

  • A sufficient ventilation system should be provided to reduce the chance of methane (and, in case of fire, smoke) build-up and for explosion venting requirements. Ventilation should be provided at the apex to take advantage of the chimney effect. 

 
 
 

Coal storage meets environmental responsibility.

Pupuk-Kaltim’s coal-boiler project produces the steam required to help the company deliver its annual 3 million tons of urea to its customers in Indonesia and beyond. As Indonesia’s largest fertilizer producer, Pupuk-Kaltim has won numerous awards for its green practices and outstanding engineering. And the shiny Geometrica dome at Bontang keeps the coal, and the company's track record, spotless.

 

Geometrica coal storage domes protect the environment around the world.

 
 
 
Jacksonville Electric Authority’s 2 x 122m internally clad petroleum coke storage domes, Florida, USA.

Jacksonville Electric Authority’s 2 x 122m internally clad petroleum coke storage domes, Florida, USA.

 
 
Longitudinal coal storage, Djebel, Tunisia

Longitudinal coal storage, Djebel, Tunisia

70m internally-clad conical coal stockpile, Cerritos, Mexico

70m internally-clad conical coal stockpile, Cerritos, Mexico

 
 
4 x 126m Tai Power coal domes in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

4 x 126m Tai Power coal domes in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

80m diameter coal storage dome in Kalimantan, Indonesia

80m diameter coal storage dome in Kalimantan, Indonesia

 
 

bulk storage

Limestone and Clinker

 
 
 

In cement manufacture, Geometrica domes store raw materials and finished products.

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Cement plants need large, column free buildings for limestone blending, fuel and additives storage, clinker storage and palletizing areas.  Geometrica provides cost effective buildings for all these needs.  Limestone blending beds typically go from under 70m to over 120m. Longitudinal additives and fuel stockpiles and stacking equipment require buildings that span from 50m to over 100m.  Geometrica has supplied domes in the whole range.  


Clinker storage silos contain the material with concrete walls.  The Geometrica dome sits atop the wall to cover the stockpile.  Being hygroscopic, clinker domes typically feature both internal and external cladding.  This prevents the material from accumulating on the structure in humid conditions.

 
Clinker storage dome for Edo Cement in Nigeria.

Clinker storage dome for Edo Cement in Nigeria.

 
 
 

Circular or longitudinal blending is best done under a Geometrica dome.

 
 
 
Cementos Moctezuma circular structures in Mexico.

Cementos Moctezuma circular structures in Mexico.

Bio Bio longitudinal structures in Chile.

Bio Bio longitudinal structures in Chile.

 
 
 
 

Gallery: Cement Manufacture Domes

 
 
 

bulk storage

Hazardous Materials

 
 
 

Fire, corrosion or explosion hazards are inherent to certain bulk materials. Geometrica domes can help control the associated risk.

Jacksonville Electric Authority 2x122m petcoke storage domes.

Jacksonville Electric Authority 2x122m petcoke storage domes.

 
 

Combustible Materials Storage

Coal, pet-coke and sulphur are combustible. Their dust presents fire and explosion hazards. Geometrica domes have round structural members that minimize potential dust accumulation, and may be clad internally to completely prevent dust from accumulating on the inside of the structure.

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Corrosive Material Storage

Urea, sulfur, salt, and other materials can present corrosion challenges. Structure and cladding material selection is very important.

Geometrica provides structures in galvanized steel, aluminum and even stainless steel. Paint may be applied over these structural materials for added protection. Cladding may also be made from these different materials, or from plastic. And the structures may be clad internally, externally or both.

Urea dome, 122m x 54m, Veracruz, Mexico

Urea dome, 122m x 54m, Veracruz, Mexico

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Comparison of Dome Cladding Systems

Hazardous materials must often be kept away from structural components to prevent corrosion or explosion hazards. This is not easy in conventional structures because dust accumulates on ledges and niches in the structural members. Geometrica structures, built with circular hollow sections, naturally shed most dust. And for even more protection, cladding can be fixed to the underside of the structure.

 
 
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135m diameter sulphur storage dome, Abu Dhabi

135m diameter sulphur storage dome, Abu Dhabi

Bulk Storage

Ring Stockpiles

 
 
 

A Geometrica dome on your stockyard will improve your plant’s runoff and air quality measures.

Twin 113m diameter limestone domes, Lafarge plant, Lichtenburg, South Africa

Twin 113m diameter limestone domes, Lafarge plant, Lichtenburg, South Africa

Interior view of ring stockpile domes in Merida

Interior view of ring stockpile domes in Merida

Geometrica is the industry leader in domes for automated ring piles, having provided the majority and the largest domes in the world for this application.

A slewing stacker at the center stacks the material and creates the pile, while a bridge or a portal rake reclaims the material from a face of the pile. Limestone, clay, marl, coal, wood chips, fertilizers, sulfur and many other materials are stored in automated ring piles.

 
 
 

Geometrica geodesic domes have been built over piles of over 140m in diameter, and it is feasible to span up to 300m.

 
 
An immense circular dome covers a ring stockpile at Moctezuma Cement, Mexico.

An immense circular dome covers a ring stockpile at Moctezuma Cement, Mexico.

Typically, a dome for this application will need to cover an additional 3m to 6m width area around the base circumference of the pile for reclaimer clearance and circulation of maintenance personnel or small vehicles. Thus, the diameter of a dome for this application is usually 6 to 12m more than the pile's diameter. The dome's height is normally set at about 1/3 of the diameter for efficiency, but may be substantially lower or higher if desired.

Geodesic domes for ring piles also need to clear the reclaimer at its highest point near the perimeter of the stockpile, as well as provide a minimum height for the vehicles in the free area around the material. Instead of using an expensive vertical wall to achieve this, Geometrica can supply domes with elliptical or compound parabolic profiles that have a steep slope near the perimeter.

 
Therma Visayas Energy 126m dome during construction. Toledo, Philippines.

Therma Visayas Energy 126m dome during construction. Toledo, Philippines.

Therma Visayas Energy 126m dome upon completion.

Therma Visayas Energy 126m dome upon completion.

 

Bulk storage

Conical Piles

 
 
 

Ores, grains, salts and many other commodities are stored in conical stockpiles. Geometrica provides covers for all these materials.

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Conical stockpiles are formed from the free-fall of bulk material off the end of a static conveyor.  In open-air conical piles, the drop of material through windy air creates blinding plumes of dust.  Geometrica domes block the wind and contain this dust, helping your plant meet its environmental goals.  

Domes may be designed to enclose the drop-off point, or to support the tip of the conveyor and load through an apex chute.  Clearance should be provided to allow mobile equipment to circulate around and on the stockpile.  A concrete wall support can increase storage capacity.  

In conical piles, fines naturally accumulate around the perimeter, at the  base of the pile. Because the dust is aerated when settling, fines have a very small angle of repose and the stockpile grows over time. Geometrica recommends placing the dome on a wall, or leaving a gap around the pile where equipment may circulate to remove accumulated dust.  Geometrica also offers replaceable panels for the dome’s bottom ring to prevent damage in case of accidental lateral overloading.

Whether mining, agriculture, concrete or other industries, a Geometrica dome protects your inventory and the environment from each other.

 
122m dome cover for a copper ore stockpile at Sierra Gorda mine in Chile

122m dome cover for a copper ore stockpile at Sierra Gorda mine in Chile

Clinker dome in Nigeria

Clinker dome in Nigeria

 
 

Maximizing Efficiency, Eliminating Downtime

Geometrica domes are custom-designed to for your projects specific site conditions. Local labor can install the domes using a variety of construction methods and following the strictest health and safety standards.

 
 
MATSA structures in Spain

MATSA structures in Spain

 
 

The Caserones dome in Chile. An engineering feet in a tough terrain, with snow and slopes, yet beautifully displaying Geometrica’s system.

Click below to watch video

 

bulk storage

Freeform Piles

 
 
 

Existing bulk material stockyards are often unruly. Tame them with a Freedome®.

Coemin Freedome®. An irregularly shaped design was required for a mining operation near Copiapó in northern Chile, which covered the copper stockpile, equipment and buildings.

Coemin Freedome®. An irregularly shaped design was required for a mining operation near Copiapó in northern Chile, which covered the copper stockpile, equipment and buildings.

A pile of raw material is usually formed in the proximity of the area where it is needed. These piles are not always conveniently shaped, especially when located on rough slopes close to the quarry. Some are continuously recreated with moveable conveyor or truck drops and reshaped with earthmovers. They may be encroached by equipment and buildings. Many became operational before a cover was ever deemed necessary. 

Geometrica developed and trademarked the Freedome®, a freestyle geodesic dome that can enclose stockpiles of any size and shape on any terrain without internal columns. And this can be done even while the stockyard is in operation. Freedome® removes the constraints of traditional domes, and helps you and your property achieve its emissions goals.

 
Aerial view of the Coemin Freedome® in Chile.

Aerial view of the Coemin Freedome® in Chile.

 
 

Geometrica free-form domes achieve the world’s longest spans.

 
 
Bocamina has two Geometrica freeform structures in Chile spanning over 200m.

Bocamina has two Geometrica freeform structures in Chile spanning over 200m.

 

The Freedomes at Enel’s Bocamina II power plant in Chile may be the world’s largest domes of irregular plan. They cover more than 45,000 m2, following the original border of the uncovered fuel yards. Below is a lighthearted video (duration 01:44) about how we delivered the first of these domes, from concept to completion.

Click the image below to play video.

 
 

bulk storage

Longitudinal Piles

 
 
 

Geometrica offers efficient longitudinal structures in cross sections that suit the project's conditions.

Two longitudinal domes and one circular dome build in Djebel Ressas, Tunesia.

Two longitudinal domes and one circular dome build in Djebel Ressas, Tunesia.

Perhaps the most common way to store large volume bulk materials is by stacking them in long, prismatic piles. The material is loaded with a side stacker, or with a tripper car from above. Reclaiming is done with a bridge or side scrapper reclaimer or with front end loaders.

For Carthage Cement in Tunisia as seen above, Geometrica built three bulk-storage structures for the greenfield plant.

  • 200m Additives longitudinal dome

  • 300m Coal longitudinal dome

  • 90m Limestone circular dome

 
 

Custom Longitudinal Geometries

The different Geometrica geometries are shown in the figures below. Parabolic or acute geometries are best for large crest loads, such as tripper cars, which these domes can easily support. Circular cross sections are ideal for large wind loading sites. Bents start vertically to minimize the footprint of the building. The ends of any enclosure may be left open, or closed with semi-domes or flat space frame walls.

Geometrica longitudinal structures are particularly suited for highly corrosive environments. The structural tubes may be galvanized steel or aluminum, and either of these materials may be finished with a highly resistant thermoset epoxy or polyester coating. Cladding may be steel, aluminum, fiber-reinforced plastic, polycarbonate, or a combination of these. For aggressive interior environments, FRP cladding may be applied internal to the structure.

 
 
 

PARABOLIC PROFILE

 

Circular Profile

 

Acute Profile

 

Bent Profile

 

COMPOUND CURVE PROFILE

 
Circular profile longitudinal dome for San Juan Cement in Puerto Rico.

Circular profile longitudinal dome for San Juan Cement in Puerto Rico.